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Photograph of two men on horseback in parade

Photograph of two Indigenous men in full regalia on horseback. They are likely from the Nakoda (Stoney) or Niitsitapi/ Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot) Nations. They are riding down a street with many people standing on the sidewalk behind them.

British Columbia Proclamation

Titled: British Columbia. Proclamation.
Proclaims James Douglas to have the ability to make laws, institutions and ordinances for the governance of British Columbia, along with the ability to acquire un-surveyed land in British Columbia for British subjects.
Duplicate of 2011.103.003

[185-] British Columbia Proclamation

Titled: British Columbia. Proclamation.
Proclaims James Douglas to have the ability to make laws, institutions and ordinances for the governance of British Columbia, along with the ability to acquire un-surveyed land in British Columbia for British subjects.

PE001563 - Photographs: [Images of Calgary and surrounding area]

Born in Ontario, Harry Pollard (1880-1968) was the son of a photographer and established his own studio in Calgary in 1899. Although based in Alberta, his work documented people and places across Canada and around the world. From 1924 until his retirement in 1954, Pollard worked for the Canadian Pacific Railway producing promotional photographs and films of the various ocean cruises that the company operated. For more information, please see the biographical entry in the Provincial Museum of Alberta's Harry Pollard fonds (available online at [accessed on 10 December 2018]).

The album contains views of Calgary and of various local buildings, churches, and residences. Agricultural and ranching scenes, including photographs of prize livestock and produce, are also present.

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PE001561 - Postal souvenirs: [Images of East End, Saskatchewan]

Although the album does not contain manuscript annotations, many of the postcards possess captions identifying scenes in and around East End, Saskatchewan. The album contains images of the local landscape as well as of individuals captured in a variety of settings, both within the town site and outside its boundaries. The latter category of photographs includes several taken at a dam. There are also a number of images of cowboys and rodeo competitions.

Several of the rodeo postcards contain the date 17 July 1914. Although other images in the album are not explicitly dated, many would appear to be of a similar vintage. Several photographs capture individuals posing in front of a Royal North-west Mounted Police depot. Formed in 1873, the force took on its modern identity as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920.

PE001104 - Combined Irrigation Materials

Various pamphlets and informational booklets on irrigation in Alberta, comprising:

  • ‘Does it Pay to Irrigate in Sunny Southern Alberta?’: A booklet by W.H. Fairfield, superintendent of the Dominion Experimental Farm, promoting irrigation as a means to increase farm yields. Some statistical data is included.
  • ‘Irrigation Farming: Conservative results in 1919 in the Lethbridge District’: A booklet on the impact of irrigation on farm yields, including some statistical data.
  • ‘Irrigation Farming Around Lethbridge’: An article by G.R. Marnoch, reprinted from the Monetary Times, providing background on initiatives to construct irrigation works around Lethbridge.
  • ‘Better Balanced Farming’: An article by G.R. Marnoch, reprinted from the Monetary Times, providing the author’s opinion on agricultural development in Alberta.
  • ‘Why We Want Irrigation as an Adjunct to Dry Farming’: The text of an address by P. Baker and C. Jensen, given at the thirteenth annual convention of the Western Canada Irrigation Association.

PE001559 - Photographs: [Alberta scenes]

The creator of the album is not explicitly identified, but visual evidence suggests he may have been Lorne Muir. Two images identified as "Lorne Muir" or "L. Muir" appear to match photographs containing the captions "self" or "myself." From 1911 into the 1950s, Edmonton Henderson's directories contain entries for a Lorne Muir, first as a resident of the Mortlake Block and subsequently of other local addresses. He began work as a clerk at Revillon Bros., eventually becoming manager of its hardware department. He later worked at Ashdown's Hardware. The album contains photographs of Revillon buildings as well as the interior of an apartment accompanied by the caption "Rooms, Mortlake Block."

The album consists largely of photographs of individuals - presumably friends, family, and colleagues - in a variety of settings ranging from mountain and ranch scenes to residential and commercial venues. The subjects are often identified by first name and, in many cases, more fully. Although there are a number of British Columbia locales represented, the bulk of the images appear to have been taken in Alberta. There are several photographs and postcards of the Edmonton flood of 1915. The postcards include images of the 1899 flood and prospective miners heading north to the Klondike gold rush.

PE001573 - W.J. Oliver photographs of the Calgary Stampede

Born in England, William John Oliver (1887-1954) settled in Calgary and worked as a staff photographer for local newspapers. He also operated his own studio. Oliver's work explored many themes, but during the 1920s and 1930s he shot extensively at the Calgary Stampede. For more information, please see the biographical entry in the Glenbow Museum's W.J. Oliver fonds (available online at [accessed on 9 December 2018]).

These 7 photographs document the Calgary Stampede rodeo, capturing cowboys competing in several events: bronc riding (5), chuckwagon racing (1), and calf roping (1).

PE001106 - The “Wonder” Mower

Advertising booklet from Canadian Farm Implement Co. Ltd. of Medicine Hat, Alberta, which promotes the company’s agricultural mowing machine. Illustrations of the machinery are included.

PE001113 - Pocket Compendium for the Friends of Massey-Harris Co. Limited

Notebook containing useful agricultural facts and tips. Subjects covered include measurement and conversion charts, postal information, individual first aid instructions, miscellaneous ‘household hints’, and cooking recipes. Additionally included is lined space for notes, and illustrations and advertisements of various pieces Massey-Harris Co. Ltd. farm machinery.

A brief pencil note has been written into the first page of line notes in the booklet.

PE001575 - Album: [Images of southern Alberta]

The album's images capture a wide range of subjects, including portraits, mountain and agricultural scenes, as well as residences, commercial buildings, and streetscapes from various towns. Although not all of the postcards possess captions or other information that identify the individuals or locales photographed, those that do are associated with southern Alberta or specific communities within the region. Images from Lethbridge, Cardston, Raymond, Magrath, and Waterton Lakes are all represented.

The 16 loose photographs generally capture individuals in various settings, although agricultural and logging scenes predominate. One image is of a mine or other industrial facility.

Photograph of seven teepees

Photograph of seven teepees from the Nakoda (Stoney) Nation. Writing on reverse reads "Indian Village; Stoney Indian tribe".

Photograph of women on horseback

Photograph of Indigenous women in full regalia on horseback, almost all facing away from the camera. They are likely from the Nakoda (Stoney) or Niitsitapi/ Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot) Nations. Writing on reverse reads "Squaws; Note travois".

Photograph of three teepees

Photograph of several teepees, mostly focused on one with a bison motif. They are likely of the Nakoda (Stoney) or Niitsitapi/ Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot) Nations.

PE000713 - C.P.R. publicity shots taken in the Rockies

Six (6) Canadian Pacific Railway publicity shots taken in the Rockies.  Prints bear captions on back:

  • Lake O’Hara cabins, Lake O’Hara, BC;
  • Yoho Lodge, BC;
  • Train along the Bow River near Lake Louise, Alberta;
  • C. P. Passenger Train – Spiral Tunnels near Field, BC;
  • C. P. Passenger Train nearing Banff, Alta.;
  • Banff Springs Hotel and Bow Valley, Banff, Alta.

PE001562 - [Photo album containing predominantly Edmonton and Alberta images]

Some of the images are identified as from Edmonton's Alfred Blyth Studios. Alfred Blyth (1901-1980) moved to Edmonton from Scotland around 1913 and began work as a darkroom technician in 1916. In 1928, he opened his own studio, which he operated until his retirement in 1970. For more information, please see the biographical entry in the Provincial Museum of Alberta's Alfred Blyth fonds (available online at [accessed on 12 December 2018]).

Approximately half of the album's photographs document Edmonton and area landscapes, buildings, and events. These include images of the Legislature, the Public Library, local golf courses, the 1937 Coronation celebration, and the dedication of the Cenotaph. The remaining images capture scenes elsewhere in Alberta - for example, Banff, Jasper, and Cooking Lake - or outside the province. There are a number of photographs of Vancouver and the Pacific Coast of the United States. Northern scenes are particularly prominent, including images of Alaska and a page of photographs accompanied by the notation "Eskimo scenes."

Photograph of Bill [Vaudreuil?] and two unidentified men

Photograph of three men, "Bill" in the middle of two Indigenous men in full regalia, who are likely from the Nakoda (Stoney) or Niitsitapi/ Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot) Nations. Notably behind them are signs for "Calgary" and "[Hudson's] Bay Company". Writing on reverse reads ""Bill" [Vaudreuil?]; Late R.N.W.M.P.; with his old pals. V is wearing Legion Button."

Photograph of Blackfoot men on horseback

Photograph of several of the Niitsitapi/Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot) Nation in full regalia on horseback. Writing on reverse reads "Blackfeet tribe".

PE001569 - Photographs: [Images of a tour of Alberta mining towns]

The album appears to document a tour through Alberta. Industrial and transportation themes are particularly prominent. Many of the photographs capture scenes from coal-mining communities such as Mercoal, Coleman, and Frank, There are several photographs of aircraft and boats in Fort McMurray and elsewhere in northern Alberta. The remaining images capture mountain scenes as well as various towns and cities across Alberta, including several photographs of Edmonton and Calgary.

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Photograph of covered wagon

Photograph of a horse-drawn covered wagon. Writing on reverse reads "Old Schooner; Replaced today by the Ford."

Men sitting on curbside

Photograph of five indigenous men in full regalia sitting on a curbside. Men are likely from the Nakoda (Stoney) or Niitsitapi/ Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot) Nations. Writing on reverse reads "Indian Medicine Man; Note dead crow; Cure for D.T.S ?".

Photograph of men and child on horseback

Photograph of three Indigenous men and a child on horseback, all in full regalia. They are likely from the Nakoda (Stoney) or Niitsitapi/ Siksikaitsitapi (Blackfoot) Nations. Writing on reverse reads "Note Indian Chiefs son wearing Buffalo horn [insignia?] of rank".

PE001556 - Photographs: [Images of Rocky Mountain tourist camps]

The album's photographs capture Rocky Mountain scenes. Some of these are generic landscapes, but most are associated with tourist camps operated by Fred Brewster (1884-1969). Brewster, born in Banff, was a central figure in the development of the tourism industry around Jasper, establishing a number of camps and tours in the region. For more information, please see the biographical entry in the Jasper Yellowhead Museum and Archives' Fred Brewster fonds (available online at [accessed on 12 December 2018]).

The album contains photographs from Brewster's Tonquin Valley Chalet, Maligne Lake Chalet, Medicine Lake Chalet, and Black Cat Guest Ranch. The images capture camp buildings and equipment as well as staff and guests. Staff members are also shown in various activities related to the operation of the facilities and tours, such as opening and closing the camps for the season.

Some annotations list only the first names of the people shown, but in some instances - for example, Bud and Myra Patterson, manager and hostess of the Maligne Lake Chalet - the surname is also provided. One of the individuals identified, George Chopey, is also listed as having taken several of the photographs.

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PE001567 - Photographs: [Images of First Nations communities at an Oblate mission, Buffalo Narrows, Saskatchewan]

Several photographs are noted as having been taken at Buffalo Narrows, a community in northern Saskatchewan. Two of the captions identify the person pictured as Reverend Edward Bleau, an Oblate priest. The necrology section of the Oblates communications Web site (available online at [accessed on 10 December 2018]) lists an Eduardus Bleau as dying in the Pas in 1956.

Certainly the contents of the album appear to capture life in a missionary community. There are numerous images of First Nations children and adults in various settings. There is also a photograph of a priest celebrating mass in a small clearing in the woods, Several First Nations congregants are kneeling in the background. Also among the photographs is an image of Bishop Martin Lajeunesse arriving on the shore after a canoe trip.

Approximately half of the album's photographs appear to document life in the missionary community. Several others capture scenes related to clerical life, such as the interior of a church and a portrait of what appears to be a group of first communicants. The remaining images consist mostly of family photographs and souvenirs of a trip to Niagara Falls and other locations in southern Ontario.

PE000785 - International Cartage Service Ltd. Brochure

This brochure is for International Cartage Service Limited, a truck service in Manitoba. Located at 363 William Ave. Phone 23 196. The inside of the brochure contains rates, contact information, and company features, while the back outlines rates for express services. All trucks are from General Motors Corporation in Winnipeg.

PE001554 - Photos: [Images of a buffalo hunt in northern Alberta]

The locations of the photographs are not identified, but the locales seem likely to be in northern Alberta. One photograph shows three men standing in front of a building with the sign Embarras Airport over its entrance - presumably from Embarras, Alberta. Another photograph shows a man standing on one of the pontoons of a Territories Air Service plane. The content of the newspaper clipping also suggests a northern-Alberta setting, as it discusses a proposed buffalo hunt in Wood Buffalo National Park. Indeed, many of the photographs in the album likely capture this event.

The album contains several photographs of buffalo and, more specifically, of buffalo hunting. These include images of hunters posing beside dead buffaloes and field dressing carcasses. The album also contains photographs of more generic hunting and fishing scenes as well as of lakes and other northern landscapes. Images of town sites (some of which are aerial shots) are also present.

The album also contains images of airplanes, ferries, canoes, and other forms of transportation. Groups of men (perhaps the hunting parties) have been captured in various settings. The album also contains several photographs of a game warden or other uniformed official caring for young animals.

PE001012 - Portrait, presumably of Gladys Jean Lowe

Black and white photograph portrait of a woman. The photograph is mounted to a slightly larger piece of cardboard. On the reverse, written in pencil: “Return to: Glady Jean Lowe 1727 McDonald St.” and “Social / Sa(?) Island / 3” x 4” ” and “A to match ‘B.’ ”

1676 promissory note, Montreal

Promissory note for 57 livres written in French.

Translation: "At Montreal, 18 June 1676. I undersigned confess to owe the sum of 57 livres to Jean Aubuchon, bourgeois of Montreal."
Signed by Joachim Germaneau.

From notes provided by the donor, "An early promissory note, made out at Montreal. The note was most likely provided by Aubuchon by Germaneau in exchange for fur trade goods. As there was no payment date stated, they probably had a payment schedule in mind, perhaps at the end of the fur trading season, or when Germaneau was expecting to be paid his soldiering wages in hard currency by the government of New France.

Joachim Germaneau (? - 1717) arrived in Canada in 1665 as a soldier. He is known to have been an outfitter in the fur trade between 1692 and 1694. He, as with most military men of the time in New France, probably participated in the fur trade during his official assignments prior to 1692.

Jean Aubuchon dit l'Esperance (?-1685) was a fur trader in Montreal, and brother-in-law to the Royal Notary Adhemar. At one point in his career, he was fined 50 livres for trading liquor with the 'Indians,' which was strictly prohibited."

1692 Beaver note by Voyageur

A short note written in French.

Translation: "Gabriel Cardinal approves the obligation that Tetros and Cadieu, his friends, have undertaken towards Sieur Dufresne, in which he is responsible with them, this other than for what he has personally received, which is 42 livres 10 sols, which he promises to pay as his share of the partnership, in beaver at the price of the bureau. Drawn up this 1st of May, 1692."
Signed by Gabriel Cardinal (his mark and cross).

(witness certification) "I, the undersigned, certify that the said Cardinal gave me at Lachine, this note on which he has made his mark at the bottom, to be taken and used by Sieur Dufresne. This 1st of May, 1692."
Signed by Jean Arnaud.

(footnote) "The obligation is for 236 livres 1 sol." ('Obligation' possibly meaning 'the total debt for all partners.')

From notes provided by donor:

"A beaver note promising to pay the debt in 'beaver at the price of the bureau.' The 'bureau' was the appointed board of officials and traders in Quebec City that set the price of beaver, and in doing so set the value of the most important medium of exchange in New France, the beaver pelt.

Beaver notes, because they were secured by beaver skins at the price set by the bureau, often circulated amongst colonists due to the lack of hard currency. The notes were negotiable, and were considered money. Beaver notes are one of the earliest forms of paper currency in New France, pre-dating card money.

Gabriel Cardinal (1661 - ?) was a voyageur, and came from a family whose male members were primarily involved with the fur trade. He married in 1682.

Sieur Nicholas Jenvrin Dufresne (fl. 1690s-1700s) was a Montreal merchant.

Jean Arnaud (?-?) was a Church Warden of Montreal. He married in 1690."

1693 Promissory note signed in Michilimackinac

1693 Promissory note signed at Michilimackinac (now St Ignace, MI). Written in French.

Translation: "I promise to pay to Maurice Menard, or order, four marketable beaver, which he has lent me ... the said beaver I promise to pay him this spring in the month of June 1694. Drawn up at Michilimackinac, this 2nd day of July, 1693."
Signed by Claude Fezeret.

From notes provided by the donor:
"An early promissory note payable in 'marketable beaver,' made out at Michilimackinac, an important center through which the majority of the fur trade for the Great Lakes region was conducted at the time.

Claude Fezeret (1642-1720) came to Quebec some time before 1659. He was a master locksmith and gunsmith by profession, and from 1676 to 1681 he figured prominently in the Montreal Armourers Company (having been known as 'the first gunsmith in New France'). It seems that he also conducted business at Michilimackinac, probably servicing armaments for fur traders, and possibly taking an active and direct role in the fur trade in the Great Lakes region.

Maurice Menard (1664-?) was born in Trois-Rivieres. We know little about Menard, other than he was an interpreter at Michilimackinac, and lived there with his wife Madeline, dit Couc. They had a son Antoine, born at Michilimackinac on April 28, 1695. It appears that Madeline was one of the first white women living in the western 'Indian Country' during this period."

York Fort America anno, 1715

A double-sided, printed card stamped with publisher information for Jackdaw No. C5 The Fur Trade and a note that the card was printed in Canada.

On one side, the card outlines the value of various trading goods. Goods include toiletries, clothing, animal skins, tools and implements, and household goods, such as thread. On the reverse side, the card details the value of goods traded at York Fort, including a breakdown of the goods and their quantities, between 8 September 1714 and 1 August 1715. The goods listed are animals skins. The items are tallied and noted that they are to be "packed up to be sent home and valued into beaver."

1776 Handwritten Voyageur Contract

A handwritten voyageur contract for the position of “Devant” (Bowsman), signed in Montreal on September 2, 1776. This document contracts Joseph Leger dit Parizeau as a bowsman for Joseph-Louis Ainsse for the salary of 450 francs “currency of the country.” The outline of the contract was pre-written in black ink and later filled in with particulars by Francois Simonnet in a paler ink.

1780 James Grant letter

A letter from James Grant addressed to his attorney, James Walker. He refers to giving a 10 day extension to someone who owes him money and requests that Mr. Walker represent him should the need arise for him to pursue legal action against this person. Mr. Grant also mentions Jacob Jordan, Richard Dobie, and Mr. Mackenzie who are all involved with the fur trade.

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1782 Lake Erie freight line promissory note

A beautifully handwritten receipt/promissory note for freight shipped across Lake Erie aboard His Majesty's schooner "Hope." Signed in Detroit, November 25, 1782, by Gregor McGregor for Normand MacLeod & Company. Endorsed by Thomas Dunn, Justice of Common Pleas (J.C.P.).

The note reads, "The Hope, Detroit. 25 November 1782. Received from on board his Majesty's Schooner Hope Henry Ford Commander, seven and one half Barrels Bulk of Merchandize as per Bill of Lading No.11 in the Same Condition as Shipped at Fort Erie, the freight of Which I Promise to pay on Demand, to the Naval Store keeper at Detroit, the Naval Store keeper at Carelton Island, Or to the Pay Master General of the Marine Department at Quebec, for Which I have Signed two Receipts of the Same Tenor and Date. Box N.36 Shott half out. (signed) Gregor McGregor for McLeod & Co."

"No.11 Receipt to be Signed [by] Mr. McLeod"
"1782 McLeod & Macknamara"
"No.14 = 7 1/2 B.B." (where '14' is written in pencil)
"Judgement Montreal 15 Nov 1792 Thom. Dunn JCP"

From notes provided by the donor: "Shortly after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1776, the British Inland Marine (ultimately under the control of Guy Carleton, Governor of Quebec) restricted movement on the Great Lakes to the King's vessels in an effort to control or eliminate the smuggling of goods that might potentially assist the rebellious 'enemy' to the south. Within this arrangement, fur traders and merchants were allowed to have their goods shipped aboard the King's vessels, provided that there was room (over and above the needs of the Navy and other official Military personnel). Goods and furs were shipped aboard the vessels, and 'Freight Notes' were issued to confirm not only the receipt of goods but also to state a promise to pay (at some later date) for the service. In the end, many of these promissory notes were not settled: many of the trades and merchants were summoned to court for non-payment whereas others delinquent in payment were simply dismissed.

Problems aboard the ships were commonplace, and shipments were lost and damaged, with little recourse for compensation. Throughout this period, the traders and merchants (essentially the core of what was to become the North West Company and their opposition groups) complained, and eventually were permitted to have a few of their own private vessels on the Great Lakes to conduct their business activities.

Two years after the conclusion of the Revolutionary war, American and British delegates met in Paris to formalize Britain's recognition and acceptance of the United States of America, and signed the Paris Treaty of 1783. However, the inland maritime restrictions were in place until about 1787, when more private vessels were allowed to operate on the lakes.

This 'Freight Note' is a rare example of fur trade ephemera from a critical period of instability in the region following the British Conquest of New France and the enactment of the Quebec Act. It exemplifies the structured presence and control of the British over the Great Lakes, and the law-abiding fur traders and merchants who wished to continue their trade in the midst of all the chaos and uncertainty.

Normand MacLeod (d. 1796) was an army officer who entered the fur trade in 1774. He developed a partnership with Gregor McGregor, and by 1779 included John Macnamara (a prominent merchant in Michilimackinac) as a new partner. In 1781, he became associated with John Gregory of Montreal in the firm of Gregory, MacLeod and Company (among whose Wintering Partners was a young Alexander Mackenzie). Gregory, MacLeod and Company proved to be the main opposition to the North West Company, and by 1787 were absorbed into the association. In 1790, MacLeod sold his share and retired."

1793 Todd, McGill & Co. legal action

Three documents related to a court action taken by Todd, McGill & Co. for 6.12.5 pounds. They recovered the amount. The first document is written in English, with the following documents written in French.

From notes provided by the donor: "Todd, McGill & Co. included Isaac Todd and brothers James McGill, John McGill, and Andrew McGill. The firm was concerned mainly with the fur trade south-west of the Great Lakes region. James McGill left a large part of his estate to found McGill University in Montreal."

1798 Warrant to Summons, signed by Alexander Henry & Alexander Auldjo

Warrant to the Sheriff to summon 12 principal householders. Signed and sealed in Montreal 1798 by Alexander Henry (the elder) and Alexander Auldjo. Also endorsed by Sheriff Wm. Gray.

From notes provided by the donor: "Known by the Natives as 'the handsome Englishman,' Alexander Henry was one of the first English traders to pursue the fur trade in Canada upon the fall of New France. He was one of the founding members of the Beaver Club, and together with his nephew Alexander Henry the younger, acquired a share in the North West Company in 1792. He related his early experiences in his celebrated book 'Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, Between the years 1760 and 1776.'

Alexander Auldjo, a leader among Montreal businessmen in the 1780s, invested considerable sums in the Canadian fur trade, bought and sold property, and administered estates. He also had intimate dealings with other noteworthy Montreal merchants, namely William Maitland, Richard Dobie, and Simon McTavish.

With regard to the present document, Henry and Auldjo, in the capacity of 'His Majesty's Justices to Keep Peace in Montreal,' consider an application by Peter Foretier to subdivide a six-acre piece of land 'situated near the Town Walls, along the rivulet commonly called the Montreal River.' In this light, the document proposes to summon twelve principal householders of the district to appear before the justices to consider the proposed subdivision."

PE001004 - Album of a Trip across Canada

An album of photographs by an unidentified but accomplished photographer, with some commercial photos from Barclay and Steele & Co. mixed throughout. The album documents a trip across Canada, from sea to sea, taking place in the late 1800s. Many scenes in British Columbia, the Rocky Mountains, the Prairies (including Aboriginals and cowboys), and Ontario and Quebec, but the album does not seem to be arranged chronologically.

26 photographs in B.C.,
22 in the Prairies,
10 in Quebec and Ontario.

23 NWC Voyageur Contracts

Twenty-three (23) pre-printed contracts with hand-written particulars added.

  • Company; Boss; Employee; Date
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Jean-Marie Boucher; Antoine Moreau (son); January 5, 1801
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Joseph Olivier; Joseph Jubinville; December 28, 1802
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Jean-Marie Boucher; Jeremie Bruno, son of Jean Baptiste Bruno; December 22, 1803
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Jean-Marie Boucher; Hiacynthe Thibeau with the consent of his father Jean Baptiste Thibeau; November 24, 1803
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; John Gregory; Joseph Ladouceur; March 22, 1806
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; John Gregory; Joachim Ladouceur with the consent of his father Joseph Ladouceur; March 31, 1806
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; John Gregory; Etienne Parisien; July 11, 1806
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; A. McLeod; Jean Baptiste Chatelle; October 30, 1811
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; A. McLeod; Augustin Gagdon de Sorel; October 30, 1811
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; A. McLeod; Fran Beauparlant; October 30, 1811
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & Kenneth McKenzie; A. McLeod; Jean Baptiste Lassoureux; February 19, 1816
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & Pierre de Rocheblave; A. McLeod; Louis Bergeou; January 9, 1821
  • Alexandre McKinzie & Co.; Pierre St. Vailier Mailloux; Jacques Bertiaume; January 30, 1802
  • Alexander MacKenzie & Co.; Joseph (?)Janiant; Joseph Martin; October 27, 1803
  • Alexander MacKenzie & Co.; Joseph (?)Janiant; Gervais Rivard; October 29, 1803
  • Parker Gerrard Ogilvy & Co.; (?); Joseph Boullard; March 14, 1807
  • Forsyth Richardson & Co.; (?); Jean Baptiste Avost dit Blondin; April 17, 1806
  • Forsyth Richardson & Co.; (?); Joseph Troye; September 16, 1806
  • William Smith (?) of Detroit; (?); Augustin Roy; August 21, 1800

The final four contracts should be examined in person for interpretation. They are from 1805 and 1807.

1801 voyageur contract

A printed form contract in French. Signed in 1801 by Louis and Joseph Belair, Pierre Champoux, and public notary Maurice deGlandons. By this contract, Pierre Champoux signed on with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. as a voyageur.

1802 voyageur contract

A letter-press printed form contract. This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment as a voyageur with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. This contract is signed by A[?]ais Gregoire.

1802 voyageur contract

A letter-press printed form contract. This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment as a voyageur with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. This contract is signed by Jacques Roy, with Mr. Frederick Singer signing for the company.

1802 voyageur contract

This is a fill-in-the-blank printed form. It is a contract of employment with McTavish, Frobisher & Co., signed by Alexandre Lacombe.

1802 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract was originally for employment with Parker Gerrard & Ogilvy, but this name is crossed out and replaced with Alexr. Mackenzie. It is signed by Michel Dantigny, who signed in Montreal.

1802 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with Parker Gerrard Ogilvy & Co. It is signed by John Glatter Junior.

1802 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with Alexr. Mackenzie and Company. It is signed by Frederick Abt, who signed in Montreal.

1802 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with Forsyth Richardson & Co. It is signed by Charles Dupuis, who signed in Montreal.

1803 voyageur contract

This item is a fill-in-the-blank contract offering employment with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. It is signed by Francois Piquette. There are numerous alterations to the contract made in the margins.

The Jurisdiction Act of 1803

Titled: "An Act for extending the Jurisdiction of the courts of Justice in the Provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, to the Trial and Punishment of Persons guilty of Crimes and Offences within certain Parts of North American adjoining to the said Provinces." Removed from a bound volume, pages numbered 1433-1435. Printed in London, Great Britain by Eyre and Strahan.

From notes provided by the donor: "Known as 'The Jurisdiction Act of 1803,' this piece of legislation was enacted as a direct result of the offences and crimes committed within the 'Indian Territories' by the XY Company and the North West Company, in their struggle to dominate the fur trade out of Montreal. As seen later, during the 'Pemmican War' lawsuits, the legality of the act was thrown into question, and was later deemed to be inadequately worded to enforce the rule of law in the regions outside of Upper and Lower Canada."

1806 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Ignace Roberts, who signed in Montreal.

1806 voyageur contract

This is a fill-in-the-blank contract for employment with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Charles Laneuville. It was signed in Montreal. There are numerous revisions to the standard contract written in ink.

1806 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with Forsyth Richardson & Co. but the clerk who filled in the form began writing "Richardson" first before crossing it out. This contract is signed by Jacques Commercie (father), who signed in Montreal.

1807 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with Parker Gerrard Ogilvy & Co. It is signed by Charles Monnette de Boismis, who signed in Montreal.

1811 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank form is an employment contract with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Louis Mallette, who signed in Montreal.
This form was printed by Imprimerie de Brown.

1811 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Pierre Mailloux, who signed in Montreal.
The form was printed by Imprimerie de Brown.

1811 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Andre Langevin, who signed in Montreal.
The form was printed by Imprimerie de Brown.

Hiring contract, 27 July 1812

An engagement contract for John Nouray, which renews his previous contract with "the Governor and the Company of Adventurers of England, Trading into Hudson's Bay" (the Hudson's Bay Company). The contract binds Nouray to the Company for three years of service.

Proclamation, 15 July 1817

A call for obedience and restitution from agents of the North West Company at the forks of the Red River in light of recent land disputes with the Hudson's Bay Company. The Earl of Selkirk, acting under the charter of the Hudson's Bay Company, is positioned as the principal proprietor and land owner of the region in question.

The proclamation is signed by James Bird, governor N.D. [Northern Department?], and [Governor] Miles MacDonell of Assiniboia and addressed to Simon McGillivray per De Rocheblave.

1818 Pierre Pambrun Indictment, Pemmican War

Indictment for Robbery, signed in Montreal, 1818.

Docket reads: "No. 19. King's Bench, Montreal. March Term, 1818. Dominus Rex vs. Pierre C. Pambrun, Jean Bte. Girard, Antoine Robillard, Jean Bte. Lagarde, Frans. Boucher & Benonie Marie. Indictment for Robbery. A True Bill. [signed] Fs. Rolland, foreman. Witnesses: Jean Gab. Lalonde, dt. La Prielle, Jean Bte. Chauvin. Process. fyled 5 March. [signed] N.F. Uniacke, Atty Genl."

From notes provided by the donor: "This original document outlines the charge of robbery against Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) and his associates (all employees of the Hudson's Bay Company), which took place on the 10th of November 1816. The indictment was officially filed with the Court of King's Bench in Montreal on 2nd of March 1818.

The charge is stated (in essence) as:

'With force and arms at a place called 'Lapuise' the accused men (employees of the HBC) assaulted and endangered the life of Joseph Belcour (trader with the NWC [North West Company]) on the 'highway' aforesaid (Lac des Cedres Rouges), and stole 9 beaver skins, 25 musk rat skins, 2 otter skins, 1 bear skin, 1 keg of gun powder, one sack of lead balls (28 pounds weight), 1 roll of tobacco (65 pounds weight), 9 pairs of woollen blankets, 3.5 yards of scarlet cloth, 14 yards of blue cloth, 21 yards of blue cloth, 6 frocks (commonly called capots made of woollen cloth or molton), 3 figured flannel robes, 1 pound and ten ounces weight of beads, 200 gun flints, 1 piece and one-half piece of broad tape, 1 Indian knife, 3 clasp knives, three-quarters of a pound of vermilion, 1 gimblet, 23 shoemaker's awls, 12 gun worms, and 4 dozen metal rings powder (each listed with values), the goods and chattel of 'certain persons' (i.e., Joseph Belcour, on behalf of the NWC).'

Pierre Pambrun was a long-time employee and servant of the HBC, and was intimately involved in the 'Pemmican War' disputes between the HBC and the North West Company, primarily during the years 1814 to 1816. Pambrun, as witness, provided the courts with his observations and experiences of various skirmishes between the two companies. His evidence was included in published accounts of the trials.

Not much is known about Joseph Belcour, aside from the fact that we know that he was employed by the NWC in 1811 at Athabasca River. Although not stated on the document, we can safely conclude that he was still associated with the NWC during the time of this incident, as the document is written in the style and format of similar indictments brought against the HBC by the NWC. We can also safely concluded that this legal action taken was paid for by the NWC coalition, as part of a larger retaliatory action against the HBC, in the fight for unrestricted access to furs and supplies (i.e., pemmican) in western Canada.

Norman Fitzgerald Uniacke, son of Nova Scotia's Attorney General Richard John Uniacke, was Attorney General of Lower Canada at the time of the 'Pemmican War' hearings. He was a controversial figure, and was criticised for his very superficial acquaintance with criminal law and inadequate knowledge of civil law.

This official document was brought before the courts in Montreal, but did not proceed to completion owing to the fact that the 'Jurisdiction Act' of 1803 did not clearly state the jurisdiction of the courts of Lower Canada. Thus, the 'Indian Countries' fell outside of their area of responsibility. In addition, it was argued that the trials would not escape sympathetic influence of Montreal residents (including lawyers) connected in some way to the NWC. Thus, the trials were moved to York (Toronto), and the legal actions continued in the fall of 1818."

1820 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & Pierre de Rocheblave. It is signed by Louis Chouinard, who signed in Montreal. It appears that A. N. Macleod signed for the company, although the last few letters of the signature are difficult to make out.

1821 Act for regulating the Fur Trade

Titled: "An Act for regulating the Fur Trade, and establishing a Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction within certain Parts of North America. (2d July 1821.)" Removed from a bound volume printed in London, Great Britain by Eyre and Strahan in 1821. Pages are numbered 569-575.

From notes provided by the donor: "This act, released shortly after the amalgamation of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, granted exclusive trading rights to the 'new' H.B.C. for a period of 21 years. The act also extended the legality of the 'Jurisdiction Act of 1803' to include all territory specified by the H.B.C.'s lease."

Letter of account, 31 January 1822

Correspondence from W. Forbes [Hunts?] in Edinburgh, [Scotland] to William Boudge at York Factory.

On one side of the letter is the sender's request for Boudge to confirm his account balance. On the reverse side is William Boudge's account balance as of 31 December 1821.

Report, 27 September 1822

Report of furs seized from Registi La Rinti by John Clarke, chief trader of the Hudson's Bay Company. La Rinti was caught trading furs on Hudson's Bay Company territory at the lower Red River without a license, 27 September 1822.

1822 - Expediency of Occupying the Columbia River

From the title page: "Report Of the Select Committee, appointed on the 10th ultimo, to inquire into the expediency of occupying the Columbia river, and to regulate the intercourse with the Indian tribes; accompanied with a bill to authorize the occupation of the Columbia River. January 18, 1822. Read, and, with the bill, committed to a committee of the whole House to-morrow."

Pages 9 and 10 refer to the rich profits being made in the Canadian Fur Trade, with particular mention of Alexander Mackenzie’s explorations to the west coast and the profits made by the North West Company.

Correspondence, 21 April 1823

Personal correspondence from David MacBeath in Edinburgh, [Scotland] to MacBeath's brother-in-law, John Robison, in London, [England].

David MacBeath discusses family affairs, including his marriage to John Robison's sister, Emelia Robison, his financial situation, and MacBeath's interest in a position with the Hudson's Bay Company.

Prevost's Letter

This book is a compilation of documents prepared for the American House of Representatives by President James Monroe. The title page reads: "Message from the President of the United States, communicating the Letter of Mr. Prevost, and other Documents, relating to an establishment made at the mouth of Columbia River." Dated January 27, 1823. Printed by Gales & Seaton. Documents included concern Mr. Prevost, the North West Company, and John Jacob Astor.

Cocket card, 7 June 1827

An official document issued in recognition of permission granted to pass goods through a port. The card is marked with the ship's name, Westminster, the name of the Ship Master, [Forbes Nichi], and the name of the port, Hudson's Bay. The card is signed by an official at the Searcher's Office in London, [England] and the Collector.

PE001356 – Nicholas Garry Letter

Letter by Nicholas Garry who gave his name to Fort Garry, now Winnipeg. Removed from album with a few marks on the last (blank) page. Sent from conduit St. (London), 18th March 1828.
“Sir, I request you will permit Sam Gale to visit the Travellers Club….” Garry (1782 - 1856) was a deputy governor of the HBC. In 1821 he was in Canada to facilitate the merger of the HBC and the North West Company. Samuel Gale was active in Quebec and testified three times in 1828 before the committee of the House of Commons inquiring into the Government of Canada.

Sin título

Correspondence, 10 December 1828

A handwritten copy of a letter sent by Chief Trader Francis Heron at Brandon House to Chief Factors and Chief Traders of the Northern Department.

The letter describes trade relations with Americans and the sender's difficulties re-establishing trade with Indigenous peoples after a prairie fire drove them away. The "Stone Indians" [Nakhóta?] and Cree [Nēhiyaw] are the two groups named in relation to trade in Canada. A conflict between the Americans and the Pawnee is also described.

Correspondence, 13 December 1830

Copy of correspondence from John Stuart at Bas de la Rivière to the Governor Chief Factors and Chief Traders of the Northern Factory.

The letter reports on provisions received, the whereabouts of other people known to the recipient, and the status of the settlement, including notes about the success of the fishery.

Correspondence, 7 June 1830

Personal correspondence from Gordon Norquay and Magnus Mowat in Flotta, [Scotland] to William Norquay at York Fort [sic]. Each sender writes his portion separately on a single sheet of paper. The letter is marked with the word "deceased."

Gordon Norquay, William Norquay's father, writes to inform William of his poor health and the poor health of William's mother, to send well wishes from other members of the family, and to ask William to repay money owed to a person named Jennet. Gordon Norquay also mentions money owed to him by John Norquay.

Magnus Mowat, William Norquay's friend, writes to tell William news about marriages, fishing, deaths, and other personal matters.

1830 Assignment of stock, McGillivray to Ellice

This is Edward Ellice's copy of an indenture between John Richardson, George Gregory and Samuel Gerrard of the First Part, Simon McGillivray of the Second Part, and Edward Ellice of the Third Part.

Docket reads: "Dated 29 Sept 1830, The trustees of Simon McGillivray Esq & the said Simon McGillivray to Edwd Ellice Esq, Copy Assignment of Hudsons Bay Stock and other Trust Effects in consideration of £110,000 [line] 1700. Norman Bethune Tutor Pltf vs. The Right Honourable Edward Ellice Defdt., Defendants Exhibit No.4 Filed Feb. 20th 1839 [signature illegible]."

From notes provided by the donor: "This indenture between John Richardson and George Gregory (formerly of the XY Company and North West Company), Simon McGillivray (formerly of the North West Company), and Edward Ellice (formerly of Phyn, Ellices and Inglis of Schenectady and the North West Company, and later of the Hudson's Bay Company) details the arrangements made regarding the financial interests of those holding title in the consolidated fur trade concern (formerly that of the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company).

Throughout the document, many details are given with respect to share and stock allocations to individual traders and trading groups. The docket states that this document was used as "Defendant's Exhibit No. 4" in a litigation filed 20 Feb. 1839, naming Norman Bethune as plaintiff and Edward Ellice as defendant. Edward Ellice stands out as one of the main players in bringing about the union between the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. Upon the failure of McTavish, McGillivrays and Company in 1825, he became the only one who stood between the Hudson's Bay Company and the claims of discontented members of the North West Company. As a result, Ellice became involved in the series of litigations which lasted for 25 years. Norman Bethune was among the many people seeking financial compensation through Ellice."

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