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14th Annual Assembly

Consolidated meeting materials, including

  • Meeting Agenda
  • Minutes and motions of the last general assembly
  • Financial statements
  • Assorted reports, plans and memorandums
  • A copy of the overlap agreement between the Dene/Metis and the Tungavik Federation of Nunavut

1676 promissory note, Montreal

Promissory note for 57 livres written in French.

Translation: "At Montreal, 18 June 1676. I undersigned confess to owe the sum of 57 livres to Jean Aubuchon, bourgeois of Montreal."
Signed by Joachim Germaneau.

From notes provided by the donor, "An early promissory note, made out at Montreal. The note was most likely provided by Aubuchon by Germaneau in exchange for fur trade goods. As there was no payment date stated, they probably had a payment schedule in mind, perhaps at the end of the fur trading season, or when Germaneau was expecting to be paid his soldiering wages in hard currency by the government of New France.

Joachim Germaneau (? - 1717) arrived in Canada in 1665 as a soldier. He is known to have been an outfitter in the fur trade between 1692 and 1694. He, as with most military men of the time in New France, probably participated in the fur trade during his official assignments prior to 1692.

Jean Aubuchon dit l'Esperance (?-1685) was a fur trader in Montreal, and brother-in-law to the Royal Notary Adhemar. At one point in his career, he was fined 50 livres for trading liquor with the 'Indians,' which was strictly prohibited."

1692 Beaver note by Voyageur

A short note written in French.

Translation: "Gabriel Cardinal approves the obligation that Tetros and Cadieu, his friends, have undertaken towards Sieur Dufresne, in which he is responsible with them, this other than for what he has personally received, which is 42 livres 10 sols, which he promises to pay as his share of the partnership, in beaver at the price of the bureau. Drawn up this 1st of May, 1692."
Signed by Gabriel Cardinal (his mark and cross).

(witness certification) "I, the undersigned, certify that the said Cardinal gave me at Lachine, this note on which he has made his mark at the bottom, to be taken and used by Sieur Dufresne. This 1st of May, 1692."
Signed by Jean Arnaud.

(footnote) "The obligation is for 236 livres 1 sol." ('Obligation' possibly meaning 'the total debt for all partners.')

From notes provided by donor:

"A beaver note promising to pay the debt in 'beaver at the price of the bureau.' The 'bureau' was the appointed board of officials and traders in Quebec City that set the price of beaver, and in doing so set the value of the most important medium of exchange in New France, the beaver pelt.

Beaver notes, because they were secured by beaver skins at the price set by the bureau, often circulated amongst colonists due to the lack of hard currency. The notes were negotiable, and were considered money. Beaver notes are one of the earliest forms of paper currency in New France, pre-dating card money.

Gabriel Cardinal (1661 - ?) was a voyageur, and came from a family whose male members were primarily involved with the fur trade. He married in 1682.

Sieur Nicholas Jenvrin Dufresne (fl. 1690s-1700s) was a Montreal merchant.

Jean Arnaud (?-?) was a Church Warden of Montreal. He married in 1690."

1693 Promissory note signed in Michilimackinac

1693 Promissory note signed at Michilimackinac (now St Ignace, MI). Written in French.

Translation: "I promise to pay to Maurice Menard, or order, four marketable beaver, which he has lent me ... the said beaver I promise to pay him this spring in the month of June 1694. Drawn up at Michilimackinac, this 2nd day of July, 1693."
Signed by Claude Fezeret.

From notes provided by the donor:
"An early promissory note payable in 'marketable beaver,' made out at Michilimackinac, an important center through which the majority of the fur trade for the Great Lakes region was conducted at the time.

Claude Fezeret (1642-1720) came to Quebec some time before 1659. He was a master locksmith and gunsmith by profession, and from 1676 to 1681 he figured prominently in the Montreal Armourers Company (having been known as 'the first gunsmith in New France'). It seems that he also conducted business at Michilimackinac, probably servicing armaments for fur traders, and possibly taking an active and direct role in the fur trade in the Great Lakes region.

Maurice Menard (1664-?) was born in Trois-Rivieres. We know little about Menard, other than he was an interpreter at Michilimackinac, and lived there with his wife Madeline, dit Couc. They had a son Antoine, born at Michilimackinac on April 28, 1695. It appears that Madeline was one of the first white women living in the western 'Indian Country' during this period."

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