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Miscellaneous

  1. Head tax certificate of Pon Yuey Hoy alias Pon Huen Hoy.
    Arrived in Victoria on Oct. 3, 1911; C.I. 36 (No. 23838) issued Dec. 2, 1925 as a replacement in exchange for C.I. 5 No. 62042 where there was no photograph before.
  2. 3 postcards on July 1, 1952 Legion Day parade.
  3. 1 color photo of Jack and Mary Pon in front of their grocery store Shop-Easy at 11606 - 129 Avenue, Edmonton (1970-199?).
  4. 1 black and white photo of Pon Yuey Hoy (盤元開) alias Pon Huen Hoy and his wife Pon Yoke Fong (maiden last name Mah).
    The name Pon Huen Hoy was on the C.I. 36 certificate and Pon Yuen Hoy was on his C.I. 5 certificate upon arrival in Victoria on Oct. 3, 1911.
  5. 2 black and white photos: portraits of Pon Yuen Hoy when he was young.
  6. 8 black and white photos of the Lea’s Grocery and Confectionery at 10737 - 95 Street, Edmonton in the 1950s:
    • 1 closeup 1952 photo of the store
    • 1 photo of the store from afar
    • 4 photos of the inside of the store
    • 2 photos of the living quarter of the store on the main floor; there are 4 rooms upstairs, suite rented out (Store opened in 1947 and the property is owned by Pon Yuey Hoy).
  7. 1 black and white photo of Mary Pon, her mother Pon Shee, and her brother Ken Mah taken in front of a mural in Hong Kong’s Wong Tai Sin (黄大仙) temple.
  8. 1 black and white family portrait: Pon Yuey Hoy, Yoke Fong Pon, Jack Pon, Mary Pon, and Donald Pon.
  9. 1 black and white photo of Mary Pon’s side of the family: (left to right) Mary Pon’s mom Pon Shee (盤翠萍), Mary Pon’s dad Leng Wing Mah (馬亮榮) alias 馬恆察, grandma Mah (name unknown), Mary Pon’s uncle Do Wing Mah (馬恆磊) and wife Mah Chen Shee (馬陳氏).
  10. 4 black and white photos taken in Drumheller in the 1950s:
    • Family photo taken in front of their Dallas Cafe in Drumheller in 1951: (left to right) Peter Mah, Mary Pon, Mrs. Mah, Do Wing Mah, Leng Wing Mah, baby Ken Mah, and Pon Shee.
    • 2 photos taken at the back of the Dallas Cafe.
    • 1 photo of Mary Pon aged 16 attending the Drumheller Public School with other immigrant teens (Mary is 3rd from the left).
  11. 4 black and white photos taken in Winnipeg.
    • 1 group photo: A delegation from Edmonton to a Winnipeg event celebrating the arrival/visit of their “minister”.
    • 1 photo: a vehicle with “Welcome to our minister (歡迎)”.
    • 1 photo taken in the front of the offices of the Kuo Min Tang in Winnipeg, possibly in early 1950s.
    • 1 photo: a Chinese community float.

UAA 2018-007

The textual material consists primarily of draft copies and sources for the English translation "Le Canada et les Suisse" titled "The Swiss in Canada (since 1604)" an an assortment of material related to professional activities at the University of Alberta and internationally.

Photographic material are primarily personal photos for vacations and Icograda conference trips Jungkind took of the design and architecture of buildings, signs, cityscapes, and landscapes of his destination.

Oversize material contains an assortment of posters from other sources and includes posters for the 1978 Commonwealth Games held in Edmonton.

Jungkind, Walter

Fur Trade Collection

  • FC 3207 F85
  • Collection
  • 1666 - 1871

This archival collection is composed of textual and graphic materials related to the Hudson's Bay Company, the fur trade in Canada, and early European settlement in Canada. The collection includes correspondence between high-ranking employees at Hudson's Bay Company fur trade posts, personal correspondence between settlers or Hudson's Bay Company employees and their families, and Hudson's Bay Company reports, proclamations, contracts, and others records. The involvement of Indigenous peoples in the Canadian fur trade is also described throughout this collection. With a few exceptions, most items within the collection were created during the early- to mid-1800s.

Pre 1700

This series contains all items in the collection created prior to 1700.

Keenlyside Fur Trade Collection

  • FC 3212 K44
  • Collection
  • 1676-1933

This archival collection contains a variety of documents pertaining to the fur trade and other political events in Canada between the years 1676 and 1933. Specifically, it contains printed material regarding the formation of the colony of British Columbia and its incorporation into Canada, as well as manuscripts that describe agreements and treaties made between the governments of the United States and Britain. The archive includes a wide range of business documents, including promissory notes, warrants, and other legal documents relating to payments and goods. It also contains a selection of Voyageur Contracts and documents pertaining to the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company.

1676 promissory note, Montreal

Promissory note for 57 livres written in French.

Translation: "At Montreal, 18 June 1676. I undersigned confess to owe the sum of 57 livres to Jean Aubuchon, bourgeois of Montreal."
Signed by Joachim Germaneau.

From notes provided by the donor, "An early promissory note, made out at Montreal. The note was most likely provided by Aubuchon by Germaneau in exchange for fur trade goods. As there was no payment date stated, they probably had a payment schedule in mind, perhaps at the end of the fur trading season, or when Germaneau was expecting to be paid his soldiering wages in hard currency by the government of New France.

Joachim Germaneau (? - 1717) arrived in Canada in 1665 as a soldier. He is known to have been an outfitter in the fur trade between 1692 and 1694. He, as with most military men of the time in New France, probably participated in the fur trade during his official assignments prior to 1692.

Jean Aubuchon dit l'Esperance (?-1685) was a fur trader in Montreal, and brother-in-law to the Royal Notary Adhemar. At one point in his career, he was fined 50 livres for trading liquor with the 'Indians,' which was strictly prohibited."

1692 Beaver note by Voyageur

A short note written in French.

Translation: "Gabriel Cardinal approves the obligation that Tetros and Cadieu, his friends, have undertaken towards Sieur Dufresne, in which he is responsible with them, this other than for what he has personally received, which is 42 livres 10 sols, which he promises to pay as his share of the partnership, in beaver at the price of the bureau. Drawn up this 1st of May, 1692."
Signed by Gabriel Cardinal (his mark and cross).

(witness certification) "I, the undersigned, certify that the said Cardinal gave me at Lachine, this note on which he has made his mark at the bottom, to be taken and used by Sieur Dufresne. This 1st of May, 1692."
Signed by Jean Arnaud.

(footnote) "The obligation is for 236 livres 1 sol." ('Obligation' possibly meaning 'the total debt for all partners.')

From notes provided by donor:

"A beaver note promising to pay the debt in 'beaver at the price of the bureau.' The 'bureau' was the appointed board of officials and traders in Quebec City that set the price of beaver, and in doing so set the value of the most important medium of exchange in New France, the beaver pelt.

Beaver notes, because they were secured by beaver skins at the price set by the bureau, often circulated amongst colonists due to the lack of hard currency. The notes were negotiable, and were considered money. Beaver notes are one of the earliest forms of paper currency in New France, pre-dating card money.

Gabriel Cardinal (1661 - ?) was a voyageur, and came from a family whose male members were primarily involved with the fur trade. He married in 1682.

Sieur Nicholas Jenvrin Dufresne (fl. 1690s-1700s) was a Montreal merchant.

Jean Arnaud (?-?) was a Church Warden of Montreal. He married in 1690."

1693 Promissory note signed in Michilimackinac

1693 Promissory note signed at Michilimackinac (now St Ignace, MI). Written in French.

Translation: "I promise to pay to Maurice Menard, or order, four marketable beaver, which he has lent me ... the said beaver I promise to pay him this spring in the month of June 1694. Drawn up at Michilimackinac, this 2nd day of July, 1693."
Signed by Claude Fezeret.

From notes provided by the donor:
"An early promissory note payable in 'marketable beaver,' made out at Michilimackinac, an important center through which the majority of the fur trade for the Great Lakes region was conducted at the time.

Claude Fezeret (1642-1720) came to Quebec some time before 1659. He was a master locksmith and gunsmith by profession, and from 1676 to 1681 he figured prominently in the Montreal Armourers Company (having been known as 'the first gunsmith in New France'). It seems that he also conducted business at Michilimackinac, probably servicing armaments for fur traders, and possibly taking an active and direct role in the fur trade in the Great Lakes region.

Maurice Menard (1664-?) was born in Trois-Rivieres. We know little about Menard, other than he was an interpreter at Michilimackinac, and lived there with his wife Madeline, dit Couc. They had a son Antoine, born at Michilimackinac on April 28, 1695. It appears that Madeline was one of the first white women living in the western 'Indian Country' during this period."

York Fort America anno, 1715

A double-sided, printed card stamped with publisher information for Jackdaw No. C5 The Fur Trade and a note that the card was printed in Canada.

On one side, the card outlines the value of various trading goods. Goods include toiletries, clothing, animal skins, tools and implements, and household goods, such as thread. On the reverse side, the card details the value of goods traded at York Fort, including a breakdown of the goods and their quantities, between 8 September 1714 and 1 August 1715. The goods listed are animals skins. The items are tallied and noted that they are to be "packed up to be sent home and valued into beaver."

1700—1749

This series contains all items in the collection created between 1700 and 1749.

1776 Handwritten Voyageur Contract

A handwritten voyageur contract for the position of “Devant” (Bowsman), signed in Montreal on September 2, 1776. This document contracts Joseph Leger dit Parizeau as a bowsman for Joseph-Louis Ainsse for the salary of 450 francs “currency of the country.” The outline of the contract was pre-written in black ink and later filled in with particulars by Francois Simonnet in a paler ink.

1780 James Grant letter

A letter from James Grant addressed to his attorney, James Walker. He refers to giving a 10 day extension to someone who owes him money and requests that Mr. Walker represent him should the need arise for him to pursue legal action against this person. Mr. Grant also mentions Jacob Jordan, Richard Dobie, and Mr. Mackenzie who are all involved with the fur trade.

Grant, James

1782 Lake Erie freight line promissory note

A beautifully handwritten receipt/promissory note for freight shipped across Lake Erie aboard His Majesty's schooner "Hope." Signed in Detroit, November 25, 1782, by Gregor McGregor for Normand MacLeod & Company. Endorsed by Thomas Dunn, Justice of Common Pleas (J.C.P.).

The note reads, "The Hope, Detroit. 25 November 1782. Received from on board his Majesty's Schooner Hope Henry Ford Commander, seven and one half Barrels Bulk of Merchandize as per Bill of Lading No.11 in the Same Condition as Shipped at Fort Erie, the freight of Which I Promise to pay on Demand, to the Naval Store keeper at Detroit, the Naval Store keeper at Carelton Island, Or to the Pay Master General of the Marine Department at Quebec, for Which I have Signed two Receipts of the Same Tenor and Date. Box N.36 Shott half out. (signed) Gregor McGregor for McLeod & Co."

Docketed:
"No.11 Receipt to be Signed [by] Mr. McLeod"
"1782 McLeod & Macknamara"
"No.14 = 7 1/2 B.B." (where '14' is written in pencil)
"Judgement Montreal 15 Nov 1792 Thom. Dunn JCP"

From notes provided by the donor: "Shortly after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1776, the British Inland Marine (ultimately under the control of Guy Carleton, Governor of Quebec) restricted movement on the Great Lakes to the King's vessels in an effort to control or eliminate the smuggling of goods that might potentially assist the rebellious 'enemy' to the south. Within this arrangement, fur traders and merchants were allowed to have their goods shipped aboard the King's vessels, provided that there was room (over and above the needs of the Navy and other official Military personnel). Goods and furs were shipped aboard the vessels, and 'Freight Notes' were issued to confirm not only the receipt of goods but also to state a promise to pay (at some later date) for the service. In the end, many of these promissory notes were not settled: many of the trades and merchants were summoned to court for non-payment whereas others delinquent in payment were simply dismissed.

Problems aboard the ships were commonplace, and shipments were lost and damaged, with little recourse for compensation. Throughout this period, the traders and merchants (essentially the core of what was to become the North West Company and their opposition groups) complained, and eventually were permitted to have a few of their own private vessels on the Great Lakes to conduct their business activities.

Two years after the conclusion of the Revolutionary war, American and British delegates met in Paris to formalize Britain's recognition and acceptance of the United States of America, and signed the Paris Treaty of 1783. However, the inland maritime restrictions were in place until about 1787, when more private vessels were allowed to operate on the lakes.

This 'Freight Note' is a rare example of fur trade ephemera from a critical period of instability in the region following the British Conquest of New France and the enactment of the Quebec Act. It exemplifies the structured presence and control of the British over the Great Lakes, and the law-abiding fur traders and merchants who wished to continue their trade in the midst of all the chaos and uncertainty.

Normand MacLeod (d. 1796) was an army officer who entered the fur trade in 1774. He developed a partnership with Gregor McGregor, and by 1779 included John Macnamara (a prominent merchant in Michilimackinac) as a new partner. In 1781, he became associated with John Gregory of Montreal in the firm of Gregory, MacLeod and Company (among whose Wintering Partners was a young Alexander Mackenzie). Gregory, MacLeod and Company proved to be the main opposition to the North West Company, and by 1787 were absorbed into the association. In 1790, MacLeod sold his share and retired."

1793 Todd, McGill & Co. legal action

Three documents related to a court action taken by Todd, McGill & Co. for 6.12.5 pounds. They recovered the amount. The first document is written in English, with the following documents written in French.

From notes provided by the donor: "Todd, McGill & Co. included Isaac Todd and brothers James McGill, John McGill, and Andrew McGill. The firm was concerned mainly with the fur trade south-west of the Great Lakes region. James McGill left a large part of his estate to found McGill University in Montreal."

1798 Warrant to Summons, signed by Alexander Henry & Alexander Auldjo

Warrant to the Sheriff to summon 12 principal householders. Signed and sealed in Montreal 1798 by Alexander Henry (the elder) and Alexander Auldjo. Also endorsed by Sheriff Wm. Gray.

From notes provided by the donor: "Known by the Natives as 'the handsome Englishman,' Alexander Henry was one of the first English traders to pursue the fur trade in Canada upon the fall of New France. He was one of the founding members of the Beaver Club, and together with his nephew Alexander Henry the younger, acquired a share in the North West Company in 1792. He related his early experiences in his celebrated book 'Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, Between the years 1760 and 1776.'

Alexander Auldjo, a leader among Montreal businessmen in the 1780s, invested considerable sums in the Canadian fur trade, bought and sold property, and administered estates. He also had intimate dealings with other noteworthy Montreal merchants, namely William Maitland, Richard Dobie, and Simon McTavish.

With regard to the present document, Henry and Auldjo, in the capacity of 'His Majesty's Justices to Keep Peace in Montreal,' consider an application by Peter Foretier to subdivide a six-acre piece of land 'situated near the Town Walls, along the rivulet commonly called the Montreal River.' In this light, the document proposes to summon twelve principal householders of the district to appear before the justices to consider the proposed subdivision."

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Notes, correspondence, magazine articles, provincial and federal legislation, House of Commons and Senate debates, and legal articles regarding research on judicial legislation and juries. Copies of historical legislation only.

PE001004 - Album of a Trip across Canada

An album of photographs by an unidentified but accomplished photographer, with some commercial photos from Barclay and Steele & Co. mixed throughout. The album documents a trip across Canada, from sea to sea, taking place in the late 1800s. Many scenes in British Columbia, the Rocky Mountains, the Prairies (including Aboriginals and cowboys), and Ontario and Quebec, but the album does not seem to be arranged chronologically.

26 photographs in B.C.,
22 in the Prairies,
10 in Quebec and Ontario.

23 NWC Voyageur Contracts

Twenty-three (23) pre-printed contracts with hand-written particulars added.

  • Company; Boss; Employee; Date
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Jean-Marie Boucher; Antoine Moreau (son); January 5, 1801
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Joseph Olivier; Joseph Jubinville; December 28, 1802
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Jean-Marie Boucher; Jeremie Bruno, son of Jean Baptiste Bruno; December 22, 1803
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co.; Jean-Marie Boucher; Hiacynthe Thibeau with the consent of his father Jean Baptiste Thibeau; November 24, 1803
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; John Gregory; Joseph Ladouceur; March 22, 1806
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; John Gregory; Joachim Ladouceur with the consent of his father Joseph Ladouceur; March 31, 1806
  • McTavish, Frobisher & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; John Gregory; Etienne Parisien; July 11, 1806
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; A. McLeod; Jean Baptiste Chatelle; October 30, 1811
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; A. McLeod; Augustin Gagdon de Sorel; October 30, 1811
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & John Ogilvy & Thomas Thain; A. McLeod; Fran Beauparlant; October 30, 1811
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & Kenneth McKenzie; A. McLeod; Jean Baptiste Lassoureux; February 19, 1816
  • McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & Pierre de Rocheblave; A. McLeod; Louis Bergeou; January 9, 1821
  • Alexandre McKinzie & Co.; Pierre St. Vailier Mailloux; Jacques Bertiaume; January 30, 1802
  • Alexander MacKenzie & Co.; Joseph (?)Janiant; Joseph Martin; October 27, 1803
  • Alexander MacKenzie & Co.; Joseph (?)Janiant; Gervais Rivard; October 29, 1803
  • Parker Gerrard Ogilvy & Co.; (?); Joseph Boullard; March 14, 1807
  • Forsyth Richardson & Co.; (?); Jean Baptiste Avost dit Blondin; April 17, 1806
  • Forsyth Richardson & Co.; (?); Joseph Troye; September 16, 1806
  • William Smith (?) of Detroit; (?); Augustin Roy; August 21, 1800

The final four contracts should be examined in person for interpretation. They are from 1805 and 1807.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Supreme Court decisions, provincial and federal legislation, legal dictionary entries, House of Commons and Senate debates, legal articles, and constitutional law research materials. Specifically research on aboriginal rights and the Divorce Act. Copies of historical legislation only.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Supreme Court decisions, provincial and federal legislation, legal dictionary entries, House of Commons and Senate debates, legal articles, and constitutional law research materials. Specifically research on divorce and constitutional law. Copies of historical legislation only.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Supreme Court decisions, provincial and federal legislation, legal dictionary entries, House of Commons and Senate debates, legal articles, and constitutional law research materials. Specifically research on justice, marriage, and divorce. Copies of historical legislation only.

1801 voyageur contract

A printed form contract in French. Signed in 1801 by Louis and Joseph Belair, Pierre Champoux, and public notary Maurice deGlandons. By this contract, Pierre Champoux signed on with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. as a voyageur.

1802 voyageur contract

A letter-press printed form contract. This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment as a voyageur with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. This contract is signed by A[?]ais Gregoire.

1802 voyageur contract

A letter-press printed form contract. This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment as a voyageur with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. This contract is signed by Jacques Roy, with Mr. Frederick Singer signing for the company.

1802 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract was originally for employment with Parker Gerrard & Ogilvy, but this name is crossed out and replaced with Alexr. Mackenzie. It is signed by Michel Dantigny, who signed in Montreal.

1803 voyageur contract

This item is a fill-in-the-blank contract offering employment with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. It is signed by Francois Piquette. There are numerous alterations to the contract made in the margins.

The Jurisdiction Act of 1803

Titled: "An Act for extending the Jurisdiction of the courts of Justice in the Provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, to the Trial and Punishment of Persons guilty of Crimes and Offences within certain Parts of North American adjoining to the said Provinces." Removed from a bound volume, pages numbered 1433-1435. Printed in London, Great Britain by Eyre and Strahan.

From notes provided by the donor: "Known as 'The Jurisdiction Act of 1803,' this piece of legislation was enacted as a direct result of the offences and crimes committed within the 'Indian Territories' by the XY Company and the North West Company, in their struggle to dominate the fur trade out of Montreal. As seen later, during the 'Pemmican War' lawsuits, the legality of the act was thrown into question, and was later deemed to be inadequately worded to enforce the rule of law in the regions outside of Upper and Lower Canada."

1806 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Ignace Roberts, who signed in Montreal.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Supreme Court decisions, provincial and federal legislation, legal dictionary entries, House of Commons and Senate debates, legal articles, and constitutional law research materials. Specifically research on widow's rights and divorce. Copies of historical legislation only.

1806 voyageur contract

This is a fill-in-the-blank contract for employment with McTavish, Frobisher & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Charles Laneuville. It was signed in Montreal. There are numerous revisions to the standard contract written in ink.

1806 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with Forsyth Richardson & Co. but the clerk who filled in the form began writing "Richardson" first before crossing it out. This contract is signed by Jacques Commercie (father), who signed in Montreal.

1807 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with Parker Gerrard Ogilvy & Co. It is signed by Charles Monnette de Boismis, who signed in Montreal.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Notes, correspondence, magazine articles, provincial and federal legislation, House of Commons and Senate debates, and legal articles regarding research on women's roles, discrimination of women, human rights, and women's history. Copies of historical legislation only.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Supreme Court decisions, provincial and federal legislation, legal dictionary entries, House of Commons and Senate debates, legal articles, and journal articles. Specifically research on women's rights and equal pay. Copies of historical legislation only.

1811 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank form is an employment contract with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Louis Mallette, who signed in Montreal.
This form was printed by Imprimerie de Brown.

1811 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Pierre Mailloux, who signed in Montreal.
The form was printed by Imprimerie de Brown.

1811 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. and John Ogilvy and Thomas Thain. It is signed by Andre Langevin, who signed in Montreal.
The form was printed by Imprimerie de Brown.

Hiring contract, 27 July 1812

An engagement contract for John Nouray, which renews his previous contract with "the Governor and the Company of Adventurers of England, Trading into Hudson's Bay" (the Hudson's Bay Company). The contract binds Nouray to the Company for three years of service.

1810—1819

This series contains all items in the collection created between 1810 and 1819.

Proclamation, 15 July 1817

A call for obedience and restitution from agents of the North West Company at the forks of the Red River in light of recent land disputes with the Hudson's Bay Company. The Earl of Selkirk, acting under the charter of the Hudson's Bay Company, is positioned as the principal proprietor and land owner of the region in question.

The proclamation is signed by James Bird, governor N.D. [Northern Department?], and [Governor] Miles MacDonell of Assiniboia and addressed to Simon McGillivray per De Rocheblave.

1818 Pierre Pambrun Indictment, Pemmican War

Indictment for Robbery, signed in Montreal, 1818.

Docket reads: "No. 19. King's Bench, Montreal. March Term, 1818. Dominus Rex vs. Pierre C. Pambrun, Jean Bte. Girard, Antoine Robillard, Jean Bte. Lagarde, Frans. Boucher & Benonie Marie. Indictment for Robbery. A True Bill. [signed] Fs. Rolland, foreman. Witnesses: Jean Gab. Lalonde, dt. La Prielle, Jean Bte. Chauvin. Process. fyled 5 March. [signed] N.F. Uniacke, Atty Genl."

From notes provided by the donor: "This original document outlines the charge of robbery against Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) and his associates (all employees of the Hudson's Bay Company), which took place on the 10th of November 1816. The indictment was officially filed with the Court of King's Bench in Montreal on 2nd of March 1818.

The charge is stated (in essence) as:

'With force and arms at a place called 'Lapuise' the accused men (employees of the HBC) assaulted and endangered the life of Joseph Belcour (trader with the NWC [North West Company]) on the 'highway' aforesaid (Lac des Cedres Rouges), and stole 9 beaver skins, 25 musk rat skins, 2 otter skins, 1 bear skin, 1 keg of gun powder, one sack of lead balls (28 pounds weight), 1 roll of tobacco (65 pounds weight), 9 pairs of woollen blankets, 3.5 yards of scarlet cloth, 14 yards of blue cloth, 21 yards of blue cloth, 6 frocks (commonly called capots made of woollen cloth or molton), 3 figured flannel robes, 1 pound and ten ounces weight of beads, 200 gun flints, 1 piece and one-half piece of broad tape, 1 Indian knife, 3 clasp knives, three-quarters of a pound of vermilion, 1 gimblet, 23 shoemaker's awls, 12 gun worms, and 4 dozen metal rings powder (each listed with values), the goods and chattel of 'certain persons' (i.e., Joseph Belcour, on behalf of the NWC).'

Pierre Pambrun was a long-time employee and servant of the HBC, and was intimately involved in the 'Pemmican War' disputes between the HBC and the North West Company, primarily during the years 1814 to 1816. Pambrun, as witness, provided the courts with his observations and experiences of various skirmishes between the two companies. His evidence was included in published accounts of the trials.

Not much is known about Joseph Belcour, aside from the fact that we know that he was employed by the NWC in 1811 at Athabasca River. Although not stated on the document, we can safely conclude that he was still associated with the NWC during the time of this incident, as the document is written in the style and format of similar indictments brought against the HBC by the NWC. We can also safely concluded that this legal action taken was paid for by the NWC coalition, as part of a larger retaliatory action against the HBC, in the fight for unrestricted access to furs and supplies (i.e., pemmican) in western Canada.

Norman Fitzgerald Uniacke, son of Nova Scotia's Attorney General Richard John Uniacke, was Attorney General of Lower Canada at the time of the 'Pemmican War' hearings. He was a controversial figure, and was criticised for his very superficial acquaintance with criminal law and inadequate knowledge of civil law.

This official document was brought before the courts in Montreal, but did not proceed to completion owing to the fact that the 'Jurisdiction Act' of 1803 did not clearly state the jurisdiction of the courts of Lower Canada. Thus, the 'Indian Countries' fell outside of their area of responsibility. In addition, it was argued that the trials would not escape sympathetic influence of Montreal residents (including lawyers) connected in some way to the NWC. Thus, the trials were moved to York (Toronto), and the legal actions continued in the fall of 1818."

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Notes, correspondence, magazine articles, provincial and federal legislation, House of Commons and Senate debates, and legal articles regarding research on constitutional law, aboriginal rights, and the Indian Act. Copies of historical legislation only.

1820 voyageur contract

This fill-in-the-blank contract is for employment with McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. & Pierre de Rocheblave. It is signed by Louis Chouinard, who signed in Montreal. It appears that A. N. Macleod signed for the company, although the last few letters of the signature are difficult to make out.

1821 Act for regulating the Fur Trade

Titled: "An Act for regulating the Fur Trade, and establishing a Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction within certain Parts of North America. (2d July 1821.)" Removed from a bound volume printed in London, Great Britain by Eyre and Strahan in 1821. Pages are numbered 569-575.

From notes provided by the donor: "This act, released shortly after the amalgamation of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, granted exclusive trading rights to the 'new' H.B.C. for a period of 21 years. The act also extended the legality of the 'Jurisdiction Act of 1803' to include all territory specified by the H.B.C.'s lease."

1820—1829

This series contains all items in the collection created between 1820 and 1829.

Letter of account, 31 January 1822

Correspondence from W. Forbes [Hunts?] in Edinburgh, [Scotland] to William Boudge at York Factory.

On one side of the letter is the sender's request for Boudge to confirm his account balance. On the reverse side is William Boudge's account balance as of 31 December 1821.

Report, 27 September 1822

Report of furs seized from Registi La Rinti by John Clarke, chief trader of the Hudson's Bay Company. La Rinti was caught trading furs on Hudson's Bay Company territory at the lower Red River without a license, 27 September 1822.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Provincial and federal legislation, legal dictionary entries, House of Commons and Senate debates, legal articles, and constitutional law research materials. Specifically research on divorce, anti-discrimination law, and women's place in society. Copies of historical legislation only.

1822 - Expediency of Occupying the Columbia River

From the title page: "Report Of the Select Committee, appointed on the 10th ultimo, to inquire into the expediency of occupying the Columbia river, and to regulate the intercourse with the Indian tribes; accompanied with a bill to authorize the occupation of the Columbia River. January 18, 1822. Read, and, with the bill, committed to a committee of the whole House to-morrow."

Pages 9 and 10 refer to the rich profits being made in the Canadian Fur Trade, with particular mention of Alexander Mackenzie’s explorations to the west coast and the profits made by the North West Company.

Prevost's Letter

This book is a compilation of documents prepared for the American House of Representatives by President James Monroe. The title page reads: "Message from the President of the United States, communicating the Letter of Mr. Prevost, and other Documents, relating to an establishment made at the mouth of Columbia River." Dated January 27, 1823. Printed by Gales & Seaton. Documents included concern Mr. Prevost, the North West Company, and John Jacob Astor.

Correspondence, 21 April 1823

Personal correspondence from David MacBeath in Edinburgh, [Scotland] to MacBeath's brother-in-law, John Robison, in London, [England].

David MacBeath discusses family affairs, including his marriage to John Robison's sister, Emelia Robison, his financial situation, and MacBeath's interest in a position with the Hudson's Bay Company.

Nettilling Lake and Takuirbing River Landscape

Photograph depicts a small waterfall (Ekaluk Cascade) on the Takuirbing River just before the stream enters the eastern end of Nettilling Lake. Soper spent five months in the Nettilling Lake area, surveying its topography, mapping the lake and surrounding terrain, and collecting animal and plant specimens for the Victoria Memorial (later National) Museum of Ottawa.

Nettilling Lake and Takuirbing River Landscape

Photograph depicts a small waterfall (Ekaluk Cascade) on the Takuirbing River just before the stream enters the eastern end of Nettilling Lake. Soper spent five months in the Nettilling Lake area, surveying its topography, mapping the lake and surrounding terrain, and collecting animal and plant specimens for the Victoria Memorial (later National) Museum of Ottawa.

Nettilling Lake and Takuirbing River Landscape

Photograph depicts a small waterfall (Ekaluk Cascade) on the Takuirbing River just before the stream enters the eastern end of Nettilling Lake. Soper spent five months in the Nettilling Lake area, surveying its topography, mapping the lake and surrounding terrain, and collecting animal and plant specimens for the Victoria Memorial (later National) Museum of Ottawa.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Provincial and federal legislation, House of Commons bills, legal articles, and constitutional law research materials. Specifically research on divorce and equal rights for men and women. Includes legislation from Lower Canada (Quebec) and the United Kingdom. Copies of historical legislation only.

Cocket card, 7 June 1827

An official document issued in recognition of permission granted to pass goods through a port. The card is marked with the ship's name, Westminster, the name of the Ship Master, [Forbes Nichi], and the name of the port, Hudson's Bay. The card is signed by an official at the Searcher's Office in London, [England] and the Collector.

PE001356 – Nicholas Garry Letter

Letter by Nicholas Garry who gave his name to Fort Garry, now Winnipeg. Removed from album with a few marks on the last (blank) page. Sent from conduit St. (London), 18th March 1828.
“Sir, I request you will permit Sam Gale to visit the Travellers Club….” Garry (1782 - 1856) was a deputy governor of the HBC. In 1821 he was in Canada to facilitate the merger of the HBC and the North West Company. Samuel Gale was active in Quebec and testified three times in 1828 before the committee of the House of Commons inquiring into the Government of Canada.

Nicholas Garry

Correspondence, 10 December 1828

A handwritten copy of a letter sent by Chief Trader Francis Heron at Brandon House to Chief Factors and Chief Traders of the Northern Department.

The letter describes trade relations with Americans and the sender's difficulties re-establishing trade with Indigenous peoples after a prairie fire drove them away. The "Stone Indians" [Nakhóta?] and Cree [Nēhiyaw] are the two groups named in relation to trade in Canada. A conflict between the Americans and the Pawnee is also described.

Correspondence, 13 December 1830

Copy of correspondence from John Stuart at Bas de la Rivière to the Governor Chief Factors and Chief Traders of the Northern Factory.

The letter reports on provisions received, the whereabouts of other people known to the recipient, and the status of the settlement, including notes about the success of the fishery.

1830 Assignment of stock, McGillivray to Ellice

This is Edward Ellice's copy of an indenture between John Richardson, George Gregory and Samuel Gerrard of the First Part, Simon McGillivray of the Second Part, and Edward Ellice of the Third Part.

Docket reads: "Dated 29 Sept 1830, The trustees of Simon McGillivray Esq & the said Simon McGillivray to Edwd Ellice Esq, Copy Assignment of Hudsons Bay Stock and other Trust Effects in consideration of £110,000 [line] 1700. Norman Bethune Tutor Pltf vs. The Right Honourable Edward Ellice Defdt., Defendants Exhibit No.4 Filed Feb. 20th 1839 [signature illegible]."

From notes provided by the donor: "This indenture between John Richardson and George Gregory (formerly of the XY Company and North West Company), Simon McGillivray (formerly of the North West Company), and Edward Ellice (formerly of Phyn, Ellices and Inglis of Schenectady and the North West Company, and later of the Hudson's Bay Company) details the arrangements made regarding the financial interests of those holding title in the consolidated fur trade concern (formerly that of the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company).

Throughout the document, many details are given with respect to share and stock allocations to individual traders and trading groups. The docket states that this document was used as "Defendant's Exhibit No. 4" in a litigation filed 20 Feb. 1839, naming Norman Bethune as plaintiff and Edward Ellice as defendant. Edward Ellice stands out as one of the main players in bringing about the union between the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. Upon the failure of McTavish, McGillivrays and Company in 1825, he became the only one who stood between the Hudson's Bay Company and the claims of discontented members of the North West Company. As a result, Ellice became involved in the series of litigations which lasted for 25 years. Norman Bethune was among the many people seeking financial compensation through Ellice."

Correspondence, 7 June 1830

Personal correspondence from Gordon Norquay and Magnus Mowat in Flotta, [Scotland] to William Norquay at York Fort [sic]. Each sender writes his portion separately on a single sheet of paper. The letter is marked with the word "deceased."

Gordon Norquay, William Norquay's father, writes to inform William of his poor health and the poor health of William's mother, to send well wishes from other members of the family, and to ask William to repay money owed to a person named Jennet. Gordon Norquay also mentions money owed to him by John Norquay.

Magnus Mowat, William Norquay's friend, writes to tell William news about marriages, fishing, deaths, and other personal matters.

1830—1839

This series contains all items in the collection created between 1830 and 1839.

Correspondence, 15 February 1831

Correspondence from Robert Harding at Churchill to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

Robert Harding notes that he and those in his company have been stuck in Churchill due to bad weather and an injury suffered by a man in his company. He also tells the recipient that he has sent half-dried meat by dogsled to York Factory.

Correspondence, 25 May 1831

Correspondence from Geo Keith at Michipicoton [sic] to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

The letter describes items advanced to servants attached to the Ungava Expedition in 1831. Items listed include tobacco, rum, shoes, and maple sugar.

Report, 28 November 1831

A report from Fort Simpson to the Chief Factors and Chief Traders of the Hudson's Bay Company Northern Departments.

The report describes trade at Mackenzie River since the sender's last communication with the recipients. The report includes details about the movement of goods and the employment of Indigenous people.

Correspondence, 14 May 1831

Correspondence from Donald McIntosh at Fort William to George Simpson, governor in chief of Rupert's Land, at Red River.

The letter confirms that the order sent by Chief Factor McTavish has been received at Fort William and "agreeable to instructions are now sent on" to Norway House and York Factory.

Correspondence, 19 June 1831

Correspondence from Donald Ross at Norway House to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

The letter confirms receipt of cargo. Ross notes that the Indigenous people who brought the cargo to York Factory were sent back with no cargo to return. A person by the name of [W.] Cameron is noted to be waiting for the Saskatchewan and Swan River Brigades.

Correspondence, 3 July 1831

Correspondence from Andrew Wilson at "Split Lake" to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

The letter describes the Indigenous people inhabiting the Split Lake region, including their suffering which has resulted from a shortage of rabbits. Wilson also describes his employment of Indigenous people to hunt, fish, and courier goods. These employees are said to be paid in skins.

Correspondence, 10 July 1831

Correspondence from Robert Harding at Churchill to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

The letter describes fur shipments and the movement of other goods, and hunting at Churchill, including instructions given to Indigenous hunters working for the Hudson's Bay Company about which animals may be hunted. The two groups named are Chepoweyans [sic] [Denesuliné] and Cree [Nēhiyaw].

Correspondence, 29 August 1831

Correspondence from Donald Ross at Norway House to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

The letter confirms receipt of cargo delivered by John Ballandine, the Oxford House guide, and explains the status of Norway House's pemmican.

Joseph Touron's report, 28 September 1831

A handwritten copy of a report that describes the experiences of Joseph Touron. Also included is a document that provides historical background information.

The report describes the actions of and names of Hudson's Bay Company traders who abandoned the Company to trade with the Americans. A man named Berger is singled out as the man responsible for persuading a group of traders, including Peigan [Piikáni] hunters and James Bird, to desert the Hudson's Bay Company. Touron describes receiving threats from the deserters when he refuses to join them, and Touron states that he formed connections with Blood [Kainai] people when the Peigan [Piikáni] hunters could not be persuaded to return to trade with the Hudson's Bay Company.

Correspondence, 16 June 1831

Correspondence from Adam Snody at Stromness, [Scotland] to Patrick Cunningham at York Factory. A small, black and white print is also included.

The letter describes goods ordered with money sent to Snody from Cunningham. Snody confirms that the goods purchased with the money, including tartan shawls, have been sent to Cunningham.

The print depicts a ship sailing past an iceberg. On the reserve side is a partial image of people in winter clothing.

Correspondence, 26 June 1831

Correspondence from Donald Ross at Norway House to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

The letter informs Christie that he can expect to receive business documents sent by Ross via canoe. The letter also describes exchanges of provisions between Hudson's Bay Company posts, goods distribute to various brigades, and Ross's need for a carpenter. A man named [W.] Cameron is also mentioned.

Correspondence, 6 August 1831

Correspondence from Andrew Wilson at "Split Lake" to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

Wilson confirms receipt of documents carried to him by Indigenous couriers, receipt of twine, the failure of the fishery, and distribution of goods to Indigenous people. The letter also describes the Indigenous people of the Split Lake region's suffering and starvation that came as a result of an animal shortage and instructions from the Hudson's Bay Company to not hunt beaver.

Correspondence, 15 December 1831

Correspondence from James McMillan at Fort Garry to Alexander Christie at York Factory.

McMillan states that he has been requested by George Simpson to create a list of "iron works" and that Christie should expect the information to arrive by first boat.

LEGAL RESEARCH MATERIAL

Supreme Court decisions, provincial and federal legislation, legal dictionary entries, House of Commons and Senate debates, legal articles, and constitutional law research materials. Specifically research on women's legal rights and responsibilities. Copies of historical legislation only.

Standing rules and regulations

A print report outlining the Hudson's Bay Company's rules and regulations pertaining to tariffs and inventory prices.

The document outlines distinct rules for tariffs and prices as they relate to specific goods and the activities of "Commissioned Gentlemen," "Clerks and Servants," "Freemen," and "Half-breed and Iroquois Trappers" [Métis and Haudenosaunee trappers]. The cost of moving private orders between Hudson's Bay Company posts is also described.

Report, 1835

Print report outlining the Hudson's Bay Company's rules and regulations pertaining to wages.

The report includes rules and regulations pertaining to freight costs and wages, including those for wage according to position held and region occupied, accepting gratuity, and transferring money. Some consequences for failing to follow these prescribed rules are also included.

Regulations for promoting moral and religious improvement

A print report outlining the Hudson's Bay Company's rules and regulations pertaining to the "religious improvement" of servants and "effectual civilization" of Company employees' families and Indigenous peoples associated with the Company. Portions of other reports are also included.

The report outlines conduct and moralizing activities prescribed to servants, women, children, and Indigenous people in general. It is suggested that all groups listed attend religious services, that wives and children speak the language of their husband or father, that women and children should occupy their time with activities that promote "virtuous habits," and that fathers should spend part of their leisure time educating their children.

The portions of other reports included in this document prescribe rules and regulation related to Indigenous hunting and trapping, providing for wives and children, tariffs, wages, trade, inventories and property, and payment to and treatment of Indigenous people, including a statement calling for gradual decreases in liquor sales to Indigenous peoples. Partial rules and regulations aimed at preserving beaver populations are also included.

Correspondence, 10 March 1837

Correspondence from John Spence at Berens River to William Sinclair at York Factory. A full, typed transcript, a handwritten excerpt of the transcript, and a small black and white print are also included.

Spence wishes Sinclair well, expresses condolences to Sinclair for losing all of his old sweethearts, and asks Sinclair to relay his well-wishes to a man named Thomas Brown, who Spence believes has fathered illegitimate children with English wives. Spence also notes his desire to return to Red River and that the settlement at Red River has recently suffered from poor crops.

On one side, the print depicts people building an igloo. On the reverse side is a partial image and a caption that states the image is from "A Peep at the Esquimaux" [Inuit?].

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